About SkillsPrint Email
Skills and knowledge are the driving forces of economic growth and social development for any country.
The Government of India has set a target of skilling 500 million people by 2022. To be able to deliver this target, a structured approach involving all stakeholders is imperative. To this end, the Ministry of Labour & Employment has formulated a National Policy on Skill Development in 2009. The objective of this policy is to empower all individuals through improved skills, knowledge, nationally and internationally recognized qualifications to gain access to decent employment and ensure India’s competitiveness in the global market.
India currently faces a severe shortage of well-trained, skilled workers. It is estimated that only 2.3 % of the workforce in India has undergone formal skill training as compared to 68% in the UK, 75% in Germany, 52% in USA, 80% in Japan and 96% in South Korea. Large sections of the educated workforce have little or no job skills, making them largely unemployable. Therefore, India must focus on scaling up skill training efforts to meet the demands of employers and drive economic growth.
India’s annual skilling capacity was estimated at approximately 7 million during the period 2013-2014. Apart from meeting its own demand, Country has the potential to provide a skilled workforce to fill the expected shortfall in the ageing developed world.
India is one of the youngest nations in the world, with more than 54% of the total population below 25 years of age and over 62% of the population in the working age group (15-59 years). The country’s population pyramid is expected to bulge across the 15-59 age group over the next decade. This demographic advantage is predicted to last only until 2040. India therefore has a very narrow time frame to harness its demographic dividend and to overcome its skill shortages.
The enormity of India’s skilling challenge is further aggravated by the fact that skill training efforts cut across multiple sectors and require the involvement of diverse stakeholders such as: multiple government departments at the centre and state levels, private training providers, educational and training institutions, employers, industry associations, assessment and certification bodies and trainees. All these stake holders need to align their work together in order to achieve the target of ‘Skill India’.
The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (earlier Department of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, first created in July 2014) was set up in November 2014 to drive the ‘Skill India’ agenda in a ‘Mission Mode’ in order to converge existing skill training initiatives and combine scale and quality of skilling efforts, with speed.
The Ministry, therefore has launched the NATIONAL SKILL DEVELOPMENT MISSION (NMSD - known henceforth as, the Mission), which will provide the overall institutional framework to rapidly implement and scale up skill development efforts across India.
The vision, objectives and design of the Mission, draw on the lessons learnt from the implementation of skill development efforts over the past decade. It seeks to provide the institutional capacity to train a minimum of 300 million skilled people by the year 2022.
National Skill Development Scheme
To rapidly scale up skill development efforts in India, by creating an end-to-end, outcome-focused implementation framework, which aligns demands of the employers for a well-trained skilled work force with aspirations of Indian citizens for sustainable livelihoods.
Under the National Mission of Skill Development, Govt. of India has initiated various schemes in which PMKVY (Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojna), Udaan, Star, Vocationalization of Education are main.
National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF)
The National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF) is a competency-based framework that organizes all qualifications according to a series of levels of knowledge, skills and aptitude. These levels, graded from one to ten, are defined in terms of learning outcomes which the learner must possess regardless of whether they are obtained through formal, non-formal or informal learning. NSQF in India was notified on 27th December 2013. All other frameworks, including the NVEQF (National Vocational Educational Qualification Framework) released by the Ministry of HRD, stand superseded by the NSQF.
Under NSQF, the learner can acquire the certification for competency needed at any level through formal, non-formal or informal learning. In that sense, the NSQF is a quality assurance framework. Presently, more than 100 countries have, or are in the process of developing national qualification frameworks.
The NSQF is anchored at the National Skill Development Agency (NSDA) and is being implemented through the National Skills Qualifications Committee (NSQC) which comprises of all key stakeholders. The NSQC's functions amongst others include approving NOSs/QPs, approving accreditation norms, prescribing guidelines to address the needs of disadvantages sections, reviewing inter-agency disputes and alignment of NSQF with international qualification frameworks.
Specific outcomes expected from implementation of NSQF are:
i. Mobility between vocational and general education by alignment of degrees with NSQF.
ii. Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL), allowing transition from non-formal to organised job market
iii. Standardised, consistent, nationally acceptable outcomes of training across the country through a national quality assurance framework
iv. Global mobility of skilled workforce from India, through international equivalence of NSQF
v. Mapping of progression pathways within sectors and cross-sectorally
vi. Approval of NOS/QPs as national standards for skill training
The NSQF provides for a five year implementation schedule which provides that after the third anniversary (27.12.2016) date of the notification of the NSQF,
i. Government funding would not be available for any training/ educational programme/ course which is not NSQF-compliant.
ii. All government-funded training and educational institutions shall define eligibility criteria for admission to various courses in terms of NSQF levels.
iii. The recruitment rules of the Government of India and PSUs of the central government shall be amended to define eligibility criteria for all positions in terms of NSQF levels. The State Governments and their PSUs shall also be encouraged to amend their recruitment rules on above lines.
After the fifth anniversary (27.12.2018) date of the notification of the NSQF,
i. It shall be mandatory for all training/educational programmes/courses to be NSQF-compliant
ii. All training and educational institutions shall define eligibility criteria for admission to various courses in terms of NSQF levels.
QP and NOS
NOSs – National Occupational Standards (NOSs) specify the standard of performance, knowledge and understanding when carrying out a particular activity in the workplace. Each NOS defines one key function in a job role. Example: For a Sales Associate, one of the NOS would be to 'To help customers choose right products'.
QPs – A set of NOSs, aligned to a job role, called Qualification Packs (QPs), would be available for every job role in each industry sector. These drive both the creation of curriculum, and assessments. These job roles would be at various proficiency levels, and aligned to the NSQF. Example would be Qualification Pack of a Sales Associate
Sector Skill Councils are responsible for the creation of QPs and NOSs. These Occupational Standards are open for public viewing for a month on http://www.nsdcindia.org/nos. All those who have participated in development and validation of standards as well as the industry are informed by the SSC that the Occupational Standards have been published for comments. All comments/ feedback received during the period will be responded by respective Sector Skill Council under intimation to NSDC. After one month of public viewing, these standards will be promulgated as National Standards.
As of 31st March 2015, across 28 Sectors, standards for 1319 Job Roles pegged at NSQF levels 1 to 8 have been defined by the Sector Skill Councils. 14 SSCs have covered development of 80% of entry level workforce QPs.
Current list of developed Qualification Packs and NOSs are available at http://www.nsdcindia.org/sites/default/files/files/04th-Jun-2015-Summary-List-QP-NOS-list-including-Draft.pdf